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  Craig B. Markwardt, NASA/GSFC Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20770


  Applies a function to specified dimensions of an array

Major Topics


Calling Sequence



  CMAPPLY will apply one of a few select functions to specified
  dimensions of an array. Unlike some IDL functions, you *do* have
  a choice of which dimensions that are to be "collapsed" by this
  function. Iterative loops are avoided where possible, for
  performance reasons.
  The possible functions are: (and number of loop iterations:)
    + - Performs a sum (as in TOTAL) number of collapsed dimensions
    AND - Finds LOGICAL "AND" (not bitwise) same
    OR - Finds LOGICAL "OR" (not bitwise) same
    * - Performs a product LOG_2[no. of collapsed elts.]
    MIN - Finds the minimum value number of collapsed dimensions
    MAX - Finds the maximum value same
    MEDIAN- Finds the median value same
    USER - Applies user-defined function no. of output elements
  It is possible to perform user-defined operations arrays using
  CMAPPLY. The OP parameter is set to 'USER:FUNCTNAME', where
  FUNCTNAME is the name of a user-defined function. The user
  defined function should be defined such that it accepts a single
  parameter, a vector, and returns a single scalar value. Here is a
  prototype for the function definition:
        scalar = ... function of x or keywords ...
        RETURN, scalar
  The function may accept keywords. Keyword values are passed in to
  CMAPPLY through the FUNCTARGS keywords parameter, and passed to
  the user function via the _EXTRA mechanism. Thus, while the
  definition of the user function is highly constrained in the
  number of positional parameters, there is absolute freedom in
  passing keyword parameters.
  It's worth noting however, that the implementation of user-defined
  functions is not particularly optimized for speed. Users are
  encouraged to implement their own array if the number of output
  elements is large.


  OP - The operation to perform, as a string. May be upper or lower
        If a user-defined operation is to be passed, then OP is of
        the form, 'USER:FUNCTNAME', where FUNCTNAME is the name of
        the user-defined function.
  ARRAY - An array of values to be operated on. Must not be of type
          STRING (7) or STRUCTURE (8).

Optional Inputs

  DIMS - An array of dimensions that are to be "collapsed", where
          the the first dimension starts with 1 (ie, same convention
          as IDL function TOTAL). Whereas TOTAL only allows one
          dimension to be added, you can specify multiple dimensions
          to CMAPPLY. Order does not matter, since all operations
          are associative and transitive. NOTE: the dimensions refer
          to the *input* array, not the output array. IDL allows a
          maximum of 8 dimensions.
          DEFAULT: 1 (ie, first dimension)


  DOUBLE - Set this if you wish the internal computations to be done
            in double precision if necessary. If ARRAY is double
            precision (real or complex) then DOUBLE=1 is implied.
            DEFAULT: not set
  TYPE - Set this to the IDL code of the desired output type (refer
          to documentation of SIZE()). Internal results will be
          rounded to the nearest integer if the output type is an
          integer type.
          DEFAULT: same is input type
  FUNCTARGS - If OP is 'USER:...', then the contents of this keyword
              are passed to the user function using the _EXTRA
              mechanism. This way you can pass additional data to
              your user-supplied function, via keywords, without
              using common blocks.
              DEFAULT: undefined (i.e., no keywords passed by _EXTRA)

Return Value

  An array of the required TYPE, whose elements are the result of
  the requested operation. Depending on the operation and number of
  elements in the input array, the result may be vulnerable to
  overflow or underflow.


  Shows how CMAPPLY can be used to total the second dimension of the
  array called IN. This is equivalent to OUT = TOTAL(IN, 2)
  IDL> IN = INDGEN(5,5)
  IDL> OUT = CMAPPLY('+', IN, [2])
  OUT INT = Array[5]
  Second example. Input is assumed to be an 5x100 array of 1's and
  0's indicating the status of 5 detectors at 100 points in time.
  The desired output is an array of 100 values, indicating whether
  all 5 detectors are on (=1) at one time. Use the logical AND
  IDL> IN = detector_status ; 5x100 array
  IDL> OUT = CMAPPLY('AND', IN, [1]) ; collapses 1st dimension
  OUT BYTE = Array[100]
  (note that MIN could also have been used in this particular case,
  although there would have been more loop iterations).
  Third example. Shows sum over first and third dimensions in an
  array with dimensions 4x4x4:
  IDL> IN = INDGEN(4,4,4)
  IDL> OUT = CMAPPLY('+', IN, [1,3])
        408 472 536 600
  Fourth example. A user-function (MEDIAN) is used:
  IDL> IN = RANDOMN(SEED,10,10,5)
  OUT FLOAT = Array[10, 10]
  (OUT(i,j) is the median value of IN(i,j,*))

Modification History

  Mar 1998, Written, CM
  Changed usage message to not bomb, 24 Mar 2000, CM
  Signficant rewrite for *, MIN and MAX (inspired by Todd Clements
    <Todd_Clements@alumni.hmc.edu>); FOR loop indices are now type
    LONG; copying terms are liberalized, CM, 22, Aug 2000
  More efficient MAX/MIN (inspired by Alex Schuster), CM, 25 Jan
  Make new MAX/MIN actually work with 3d arrays, CM, 08 Feb 2002
  Add user-defined functions, ON_ERROR, CM, 09 Feb 2002
  Correct bug in MAX/MIN initialization of RESULT, CM, 05 Dec 2002
  Correct bug in CMAPPLY_PRODUCT implementation when there are an
    odd number of values to combine, CM 26 Jul 2006
  Add fast IDL versions of '*', 'MEDIAN', 'MIN' and 'MAX', where
    IDL supports it, CM 26 Jul 2006
  $Id: cmapply.pro,v 1.6 2006/07/26 19:34:24 craigm Exp $

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