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IMSL_QRSOL

IMSL_QRSOL

The IMSL_QRSOL function solves a real linear least-squares problem Ax = b.

This routine requires an IDL Advanced Math and Stats license. For more information, contact your sales or technical support representative.

IMSL_QRSOL solves a system of linear least-squares problems Ax = b with column pivoting. It computes a QR factorization of the matrix AP, where P is the permutation matrix defined by the pivoting, and computes the smallest integer k satisfying |rk,k| < TOLERANCE*|r0,0| to the output keyword BASIS.

Householder transformations:

Qk = I – τkukuk T, k = 0, ..., min(m – 1, n) – 1

compute the factorization. The decomposition is computed in the form Qmin (m – 1, n) – 1 ... Q0 AP = R, so AP = QR where Q = Q0 ... Qmin (m – 1, n) – 1. Since each Householder vector uk has zeros in the first k + 1 entries, it is stored as part of column k of QR. The upper-trapezoidal matrix R is stored in the upper-trapezoidal part of the first min(m, n) rows of QR. The solution x to the least-squares problem is computed by solving the upper-triangular system of linear equations R (0:k, 0:k) y (0:k) = (QTb) (0:k) with k = Basis – 1. The solution is completed by setting y (k:n – 1) to zero and rearranging the variables, x = Py.

If the QR and AUXQR keywords are specified, then the function computes the leastsquares solution to Ax = b given the QR factorization previously defined. There are Basis columns used in the solution. Hence, in the case that all columns are free, x is computed as described in the default case.

Example


This example illustrates the least-squares solution of four linear equations in three unknowns by using column pivoting. This is equivalent to least-squares quadratic polynomial fitting to four data values. The polynomial is written as p(t) = x0 + tx1 + t2x2 and the data pairs (ti, bi ), ti = 2(i + 1), i = 0, 1, 2, 3. The solution to Ax = b is returned by the IMSL_QRSOL function.

RM, a, 4, 3
; Define the coefficient matrix.
  row 0: 1 2 4
  row 1: 1 4 16
  row 2: 1 6 36
  row 3: 1 8 64
RM, b, 4, 1
; Define the right-hand side.
  row 0: 4.999
  row 1: 9.001
  row 2: 12.999
  row 3: 17.001
x = IMSL_QRSOL(b, a)
; Call IMSL_QRSOL.
PM, x, Title = 'Solution', Format = '(f8.5)'

Result:

Solution
  0.99900
  2.00020
  0.00000
 
PM, a # x - b, Title = 'Residual', Format = '(f10.7)'

Result:

Residual
  0.0004015
  -0.0011997
  0.0012007
  -0.0004005

Syntax


Result = IMSL_QRSOL(B, [A] [, AUXQR=variable] [, BASIS=variable] [, /DOUBLE] [, QR=variable] [, PIVOT=variable] [, RESIDUAL=variable] [, TOLERANCE=value)

Return Value


The solution, x, of the linear least-squares problem Ax = b.

Arguments


B

Matrix containing the right-hand side.

A (optional)

Two-dimensional matrix containing the coefficient matrix. Element A (i, j) contains the j-th coefficient of the i-th equation.

Keywords


AUXQR (optional)

Named variable in which the matrix containing the scalars τk of the Householder transformations that define the decomposition, as computed in the IMSL_QRFAC procedure, is stored. The AUXQR, PIVOT, and QR keywords must be used together.

BASIS (optional)

Named variable containing an integer specifying the number of columns used in the solution. The value BASIS = k, if |rk,k| < TOLERANCE*|r0,0| and |ri,i| ≥ TOLERANCE*|r0,0| for i = 0, 1, ..., k – 1.

DOUBLE (optional)

If present and nonzero, double precision is used.

QR (optional)

Named variable which stores the matrix containing Householder transformations that define the decomposition, as computed in the IMSL_QRFAC procedure. The AUXQR, PIVOT, and QR keywords must be used together.

PIVOT (optional)

Named variable in which the array containing the desired variable order and usage information is stored. The AUXQR, PIVOT, and QR keywords must be used together.

  • On input, if PIVOT (k) > 0, then column k of A is an initial column. If PIVOT (k) = 0, then the column k of A is a free column and can be interchanged in the column pivoting. If PIVOT (k) < 0, then column k of A is a final column. If all columns are specified as initial (or final) columns, then no pivoting is performed. (The permutation matrix P is the identity matrix in this case.)
  • On output, PIVOT (k) contains the index of the column of the original matrix that has been interchanged into column k.
  • Default: PIVOT (*) = 0

Note: If IMSL_QRSOL is used to solve a problem previously factored in IMSL_QRFAC, the matrix specified by PIVOT should contain the same information that the IMSL_QRFAC parameter PIVOT contained upon output.

RESIDUAL (optional)

Named variable in which the matrix containing the residual vector b – Ax is stored.

TOLERANCE (optional)

Nonnegative tolerance used to determine the subset of columns of A to be included in the solution. Default: SQRT(ε), where ε is machine precision.

Errors


Fatal Errors

MATH_SINGULAR_TRI_MATRIX: Input triangular matrix is singular. The index of the first zero diagonal element is #.

Version History


6.4

Introduced

See Also


IMSL_QRFAC, IMSL_SP_LUFAC



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